Tag: Most Admired Companies


Grokking Jobs on Campus

September 1st, 2011 — 2:01pm

I’ve been Executive in Residence at Babson College since January. As Fall creeps up on New England (You’re beautiful, but can you please stay away for a little longer?) and students return, my thoughts are a continent away, at two other campuses: The California Institute of Technology and the Apple campus in Cupertino.

This summer, I learnt of a Caltech lore: When Apple visits Caltech to recruit undergraduates in computer science, it brings an open checkbook. Even unreasonable salary expectations don’t preclude the hiring of those whom it likes. Initially, the story seemed inconsequential.

Then, a few days ago, Steve Jobs resigned his position as Apple’s CEO. Apple’s iconic co-founder has reportedly lived a decidedly iconoclastic life, at least in comparison with those of the CEOs of most global companies. He dropped out of college, but living on friends’ sofas, continued to attend classes he liked. So exposed to calligraphy, he incorporated a range of fonts, not just Pica and Elite, on the original Macs. He then dropped out altogether went to an ashram in India, from where he returned a Buddhist. He embraced counter-culture and reportedly regards his doing so a critical formative experience. In short, as a young man, he was the complete antithesis of the people that Apple is seemingly hiring at Caltech.

I am not begrudging the Caltech seniors, particularly those who have worked diligently, their high-paying jobs! Nevertheless, the juxtaposition of these events raised in my mind a critical question for Apple and a more general one for businesses and academia. The roots of these questions lie in an amazing interview Jobs gave to Wired magazine in 1996, before he returned to Apple. In part, he said:

“Some people think design means how it looks. But of course, if you dig deeper, it’s really how it works. The design of the Mac wasn’t what it looked like, although that was part of it. Primarily, it was how it worked. To design something really well, you have to get it. You have to really grok what it’s all about. It takes a passionate commitment to really thoroughly understand something, chew it up, not just quickly swallow it. Most people don’t take the time to do that.

(Jobs probably used the word grok very deliberately; if you don’t grok it, read Robert Heinlein’s Stranger in a Strange Land.)

“Creativity is just connecting things. When you ask creative people how they did something, they feel a little guilty because they didn’t really do it, they just saw something. It seemed obvious to them after a while. That’s because they were able to connect experiences they’ve had and synthesize new things. And the reason they were able to do that was that they’ve had more experiences or they have thought more about their experiences than other people.

“Unfortunately, that’s too rare a commodity. A lot of people in our industry haven’t had very diverse experiences. So they don’t have enough dots to connect, and they end up with very linear solutions without a broad perspective on the problem. The broader one’s understanding of the human experience, the better design we will have.”

I wonder if those responsible for on-campus hiring at Apple have grokked this interview. People have long debated Apple’s ability to create lifestyle-altering experiences in a post-Jobs era. A die-hard Apple fan, I had no doubts it could – if it institutionalized Jobs’ perspective on design. (I call this making of the “private knowledge of an individual the public knowledge of many” organizational learning.) However, if Caltech’s lore is true (and broadly representative), Jobs’ insights haven’t become organizational. This won’t be a problem tomorrow, but will be when the individuals so hired rise to managerial positions. Will they prize staff who lack deep knowledge but who, by virtue of their life experiences and broad knowledge, can connect seemingly unconnectable dots?

More broadly, in a world that prizes “deep, micro-knowledge” more than “broad, macro-knowledge,” how do we produce great designers, managers, and indeed, leaders? How do we ensure people are, in Jobs’ words, “able to connect experiences they’ve had and synthesize new things. And the reason they were able to do that was that they’ve had more experiences or they have thought more about their experiences than other people.”

I am not arrogant enough to believe I have the answer, but will leave you with a proposal. For college students, I’d make a “semester abroad” a requirement, not an option. And an American going to Western Europe (or vice versa) wouldn’t count.

What do you think?

Comment » | Corporate Culture, Design, Education, Leadership

The Joys and Perils of Dancing on a Knife’s Edge

February 25th, 2011 — 11:09am

The tumultuous crowds that brought down a dictator in Egypt had an unintended impact far from their homeland: they drowned out – rightfully! – the announcement of a strategic partnership between Nokia and Microsoft. I admire the Nokia I researched; yet I acknowledge it is currently in deep trouble. I have long disdained Microsoft for its product quality and its reliance on monopolistic power instead of innovation (sole exceptions: Xbox and Kinect; and yes, I admit that Office 2011 for the Mac is far better than iWorks!). So, what do I think of this alliance?

A key “prerequisite” question is: Do I still believe the ideas in The Spider’s Strategy? Absolutely! Toyota’s “unexpected acceleration” fiasco and its resultant recalls of millions of cars didn’t discredit Lean Enterprise. Why then, should Nokia’s recent challenges discredit Networked Organizations? Indeed, Nokia got into trouble because in the key area of product innovation, it stopped applying the ideas that powered its 17% compounded annual organic growth rate (in revenues and operating profits) from 1995 to 2006.

Nokia violated a subtle rule embedded in my third Design Principle, “Value and nurture organizational learning.” It used to learn rapidly by setting seemingly impossible targets that demanded the periodic reinvention its business model. Simultanneouly, to keep control, it insisted its managers follow a “no surprises” policy. This brilliant rule is the proverbial knife’s edge. Balance well, and you can pull off miracles. Tilt toward “big risk” and you can lose your shirt. Tilt toward “no suprises” and you will bring innovation to a screeching halt. As it grew, Nokia made the mistake many other large companies have: it tilted toward “no surprises.” So, unlike Apple, it didn’t build a network of complementary product makers to buttress its proprietary Symbian software. Unlike Google, it didn’t attract a different type of sustaining network by making Symbian open source – until it was too late.

The alliance with Microsoft was in the cards from the day Nokia’s Board appointed Stephen Elop CEO. Nokia’s press release spoke of a strategy to “build a new global mobile ecosystem” with Windows Phone software at its core; “capture volume and value growth to connect ‘the next billion’ to the Internet in developing growth markets;” and make “focused investments in next-generation disruptive technologies.”

The second element – a continued focus on markets like India and China – is an key, though the notoriously developed-world-focused financial analysts may not care. Apple has ignored these markets and Windows still has a true monopoly among operating systems. These facts, plus Nokia’s still dominant marketshare there, give the alliance a strong base on which it can build; Nokia can instantly create volume for the Windows Phone and a seemless integration with Wintel computers may give it an edge over low cost Chinese phone makers. At the very least, this element will buy the alliance time; at best, the “next billion” is a huge market. That’s where the first element is also critical.

To bring the alliance value, the goal of building a mobile ecosystem must truly assimilate the lesson of a recent The New York Times story about a start-up company that hoped to build a business around enabling group dates. The founders noted that the site’s users were mostly South or East Asians, but filed that fact away as “Interesting, but Unimportant.” Success came only when they reluctantly acknowledged that group dating wouldn’t fly in the US and shifted their focus to India. The world, as Thomas Freidman said, is flat. But that doesn’t mean people’s needs are the same everywhere. That’s why the word “global” in the language of this strategic element is troubling. Its use may seduce financial analysts, but unless an ecosystem to specific markets, it won’t amount to a hill of beans. At one time Nokia knew this lesson; it had had anthropologists in Indian villages whose work strengthened its market position there. Does it still remember that lesson and can it convince a monopoly to learn it too?

The third element is critical for the long term and most troubling: Will two companies who haven’t created any disruptive technology recently be able to do so in the near future? Nokia’s Chairman Jorma Ollila had championed the Networked Organization philosophy and as CEO, had managed its phenomenal growth. I could make a cogent case that he and the Board had no choice but to create the alliance with Microsoft. (Which would explain why they pursued Mr. Elop in the first place.) Now, he must ensure that Mr. Elop realizes that his most critical tasks are (1) putting into leadership positions those within Nokia who are still capable of dancing gracefully on a knife’s edge and (2) using his deep knowledge of Microsoft to convince Mr. Ballmer to do the same. Then, and only then, will the alliance succeed. If so, I may one day become once again an enthusiastic customer of both companies.

Comment » | Business Environment, Company Performance, Corporate Culture, Leadership

“I Wonder What the Ostrich Sees …”

March 13th, 2009 — 3:45pm

“… when he pulls his head from the sand? Probably a transport barreling towards him on the highway that was built while he wasn’t paying attention.” The Internet tells me that Stephanie Martin-Smith crafted this brilliant observation about the last US elections. It is an equally brilliant descriptor of Fortune magazine’s latest “The World’s Most Admired Companies.” Here’s why: 9 of the top 10, 19 of the top 20, 28 of the top 30 and 41 of the top 50 companies are … American!

I actually think very highly of many of the American companies on the list. I currently work with two of the top ten, and help (or have recently helped) several other companies – which rank high on the industry specific lists. I used to work for American Express and in my book, have praised Hewlett-Packard. But in the eighth year of the 21st century, to think that America has a monopoly on good management is short-sighted, if not ridiculous.

All such surveys have methodological biases. So I checked that out. Fortune essentially started with a list of 1000 large US companies and 400 large non-US companies. A bias no doubt, but minor. Then it asked “executives, directors, and analysts to rate companies in their own industry on nine criteria, from investment value to social responsibility.” This became the basis of the industry specific rankings. Finally, to create the list of the 50 most admired, it asked “4,047 executives, directors, and securities analysts who had responded to the industry surveys … Anyone could vote for any company in any industry.” Here’s one major possible source of bias: who ranked these companies? I could not find any description of their nationalities or domiciles or global experiences.

There are several reasons why this matters, but I’ll stick to the most important: Such biases give us a false sense of security about the quality of our businesses. While I think highly of many of the companies on the list, others simply don’t belong there. When one of them gets wiped out, the deliverer of the blow will be a foreign company whose position it had usurped. The wipe out will be a big surprise to many people because the judges, the editors and the companies themselves were not paying real attention to the lessons of Friedman’s Flat World or Zakaria’s Post American World. Think I’m exaggerating? Remember what Toyota and Datsun did to the US auto industry in the 1980s?

Convince yourself if you don’t believe me. If you are a world traveler and have stayed in top tier (highly profitable, innovative, socially responsible, high quality … use Fortune’s nine criteria) hotels, make your own list of the top five chains. If you fly around the world a lot, try ranking airlines. If you know much about the IT industry, do the same. You’ll end up with several European, or Asian companies (I confess I don’t know much about African or South American ones) that do not appear on Fortune’s lists. Your analysis won’t be statistically rigorous, but it will probably give you greater insights than Fortune’s will.

Comment » | Business Environment, Company Performance

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