Tag: Apple


Grokking Jobs on Campus

September 1st, 2011 — 2:01pm

I’ve been Executive in Residence at Babson College since January. As Fall creeps up on New England (You’re beautiful, but can you please stay away for a little longer?) and students return, my thoughts are a continent away, at two other campuses: The California Institute of Technology and the Apple campus in Cupertino.

This summer, I learnt of a Caltech lore: When Apple visits Caltech to recruit undergraduates in computer science, it brings an open checkbook. Even unreasonable salary expectations don’t preclude the hiring of those whom it likes. Initially, the story seemed inconsequential.

Then, a few days ago, Steve Jobs resigned his position as Apple’s CEO. Apple’s iconic co-founder has reportedly lived a decidedly iconoclastic life, at least in comparison with those of the CEOs of most global companies. He dropped out of college, but living on friends’ sofas, continued to attend classes he liked. So exposed to calligraphy, he incorporated a range of fonts, not just Pica and Elite, on the original Macs. He then dropped out altogether went to an ashram in India, from where he returned a Buddhist. He embraced counter-culture and reportedly regards his doing so a critical formative experience. In short, as a young man, he was the complete antithesis of the people that Apple is seemingly hiring at Caltech.

I am not begrudging the Caltech seniors, particularly those who have worked diligently, their high-paying jobs! Nevertheless, the juxtaposition of these events raised in my mind a critical question for Apple and a more general one for businesses and academia. The roots of these questions lie in an amazing interview Jobs gave to Wired magazine in 1996, before he returned to Apple. In part, he said:

“Some people think design means how it looks. But of course, if you dig deeper, it’s really how it works. The design of the Mac wasn’t what it looked like, although that was part of it. Primarily, it was how it worked. To design something really well, you have to get it. You have to really grok what it’s all about. It takes a passionate commitment to really thoroughly understand something, chew it up, not just quickly swallow it. Most people don’t take the time to do that.

(Jobs probably used the word grok very deliberately; if you don’t grok it, read Robert Heinlein’s Stranger in a Strange Land.)

“Creativity is just connecting things. When you ask creative people how they did something, they feel a little guilty because they didn’t really do it, they just saw something. It seemed obvious to them after a while. That’s because they were able to connect experiences they’ve had and synthesize new things. And the reason they were able to do that was that they’ve had more experiences or they have thought more about their experiences than other people.

“Unfortunately, that’s too rare a commodity. A lot of people in our industry haven’t had very diverse experiences. So they don’t have enough dots to connect, and they end up with very linear solutions without a broad perspective on the problem. The broader one’s understanding of the human experience, the better design we will have.”

I wonder if those responsible for on-campus hiring at Apple have grokked this interview. People have long debated Apple’s ability to create lifestyle-altering experiences in a post-Jobs era. A die-hard Apple fan, I had no doubts it could – if it institutionalized Jobs’ perspective on design. (I call this making of the “private knowledge of an individual the public knowledge of many” organizational learning.) However, if Caltech’s lore is true (and broadly representative), Jobs’ insights haven’t become organizational. This won’t be a problem tomorrow, but will be when the individuals so hired rise to managerial positions. Will they prize staff who lack deep knowledge but who, by virtue of their life experiences and broad knowledge, can connect seemingly unconnectable dots?

More broadly, in a world that prizes “deep, micro-knowledge” more than “broad, macro-knowledge,” how do we produce great designers, managers, and indeed, leaders? How do we ensure people are, in Jobs’ words, “able to connect experiences they’ve had and synthesize new things. And the reason they were able to do that was that they’ve had more experiences or they have thought more about their experiences than other people.”

I am not arrogant enough to believe I have the answer, but will leave you with a proposal. For college students, I’d make a “semester abroad” a requirement, not an option. And an American going to Western Europe (or vice versa) wouldn’t count.

What do you think?

Comment » | Corporate Culture, Design, Education, Leadership

Time to Re-read “What is Strategy?”

July 22nd, 2009 — 4:45pm

For the uninitiated, “What is Strategy?” is the name of a best-selling Harvard Business Review article that Michael Porter, a “University Professor” (i.e., the highest of the high) at the Harvard Business School and the Grand Poobah of Strategy, wrote in 1996. I will address only one of its many ideas in this post. I thought of it because of a recent visit to an upscale mall – and an announcement by a major company.

The visit was to an Apple retail store. I needed to connect my Mac to our Sony plasma TV, but could not remember the exact pin-configuration of the TV’s socket. The Apple employee helping me suggested that I ask at the Sony Style retail store located nearby and so, there I went.

You may recall that Sony began opening these stores when Apple started eating its lunch. The stores would make the vast array of great Sony products accessible to consumers. The moment I told a salesperson – who looked like a supervisor – that I was there for information, not to buy, he visibly lost interest in me. Not that the store was busy; you might have been able to hear a pin drop if you cupped your ear. Undeterred, I asked my question. The salesperson responded, “Do you have internet access at home?” “Yes,” I said, “But how does that help me now?” “Well,” he replied, “When you go home, look up the answer on our website.” “You can’t do that here?” I asked. “No,” he said, walking away. The ludicrousness of the idea that I would search their website instead of looking at the back of my TV did not even occur to him. And he is supposed to convince affluent consumers how to spend their money? In the time he spent losing a once and future customer – perhaps for ever – my teenager used my iPhone to get the information.

At the Apple store, the same salesperson greeted me again. He apologized for not thinking of going online and gave me the cable I needed. My wife asked for his help in selecting a graduation gift for my niece, who was finishing her high school. He showed us several fun software, but my wife picked up an expensive productivity program. “Oh gee,” he said sarcastically, “I just finished school and in the Fall, will start college. And my aunt gets me a productivity software! How nice!” We laughed, saw his point and decided to defer the purchase. He lost an immediate sale, but he reinforced the link between Apple and me.

Porter’s article says that strategy is about “fit.” Multiple small, individually inconsequential items must work together seamlessly for a strategy to be successful. The reason why Apple’s retail stores work – one in two purchaser of a Mac in an Apple store is new Apple customer – is that they are a seamless part of Apple’s corporate strategy. From the Genius Bar to the highly knowledgeable, non-pushy employees, everything fits together perfectly, just like the components of any Apple product. (Even the employees’ clothes match those of the Steve Job-like pitchman on its highly effective advertisements, “Hello, I’m a Mac” “And I’m a PC.”)

Sony once knew this lesson, but has forgotten it. Retailers speak of “location, location, location.” Sony’s location did not help it seal a relationship with me.

It is in this context I have been waiting to see how Microsoft’s newly announced retail stores will turn out. So far, this venture has been defined by location: the stores will be near Apple stores to give consumers non-Apple options. This is strategy?

For the sake of Microsoft’s shareholders (of which, regretfully, I’m one), I hope that the people in Redmond have thought this out a bit more. And if they haven’t, they should take this opportunity to first read Chan Kim and Reneé Mauborgne’s book, “Blue Ocean Strategy.” The essential thesis of this book is that too often, companies compete head to head with each other, leaving blood in the waters (“Red Ocean”) instead of seeking “Blue Oceans” where there are no established competitors. The Redmond strategists should also remember Porter’s message about fit: business history is full of examples of companies which tried to copy an effective strategy of a competitor, but failed miserably. The copying was typically superficial and small, seemingly inconsequential elements did not fit together. The Sony Style stores are a great example. Oh wait, Wintel machines and Windows Vista are even better ones.

1 comment » | Business Environment, Business Tools, Company Performance, Corporate Culture

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